国家教育部、公安部、工商总局首批批准设立,安徽省创办最早、规模最大,教外综资认字【2000】63号
  • 雅思写作指导 大作文开头引言方式

  • 时间:2017-6-29 11:44:24  来源:
  • 很多考生拿到大作文考题都不知道如何动笔去写开头段,有的会把题目原封不动抄下来,但如果这样做,在统计作文字数时,第一段就不被统计在内了。实际上,大作文的第一段是情景铺垫,专家建议考生在这一段要点明这篇文章要讨论/解决什么问题及问题的背景。作文的首段通常包含以下几个方面:
    1)场景或背景信息,即题目中出现的phenomenon。
    2)一些人的观点(some people’s opinion),这部分在改写文章首段时可要可不要,考生可按照自己的情况来安排。
    3)个人观点,这一部分在有些文章的开首段中也可以不要。
    大作文要求字数至少达到250字,在写作中考虑到字数的合理安排,第一段最好写3-5句话,大约40字左右,并且切忌在第一段就掏心掏肺把什么话都说完。因此专家总结出大作文开首方式通常有以下几种情况:
    1)题目中包含了背景信息(phenomenon),有时也出现一些人的观点,并且题目中字数较多。这种情况下最保险的办法是将题目中的背景信息及一些人的观点重新表达(paraphrase),可以做:
    ●主动语态<=>被动语态
    ●主谓宾<=>主系表
    ●某些近义词互换
    Example:
    At present, it is hard for college students to find jobs. Many people claim that college teachers should give priority to practical courses like computer science and business over such traditional ones as history and geography. To what extent do you agree?
    → The number of college graduates is surging while a substantial proportion of them have difficulties in finding employment after their graduation. Numerous people blame this on the university education and believe that more emphasis should be laid on practical courses such as computer science and business than on traditional courses like history and geography. 其后再加考生自己的观点即可。
    2)题目中包含了背景信息,有时出现一些人的观点,但题目中字数较少,若直接重新表达,字数凑不到40字左右。这种情况下专家推荐以下2种开首方式来保证字数:
    ◆把笼统信息细节化即通过举例来解释说明题目中的背景信息。
    Example:
    International tourism has become a big industry in the world. Do the benefits outweigh the problems?
    →The acceleration of globalization and high-tech development contributes to International tourism’s gaining momentum virtually all over the world. Each year,millions of tourists from other countries swarm into china to appreciate the scenery and Chinese traditional culture.其后加入考生个人观点即可。
    ◆追溯历史,过去与现在形成对比。
    Example:
    International tourism has become a big industry in the world. Do the benefits outweigh the problems?
    →Prior to the early 1900s, the proportion of people traveling abroad was considerably low and the majority of them preferred domestic travel. However, the advent of the motorized flight has greatly changed our life and it makes international traveling more convenient. International tourism is gaining momentum and has become a big industry. 其后加入考生个人观点即可。
    3)题目中仅出现一部分人的观点,而没有背景信息。这种情况下,我们可以根据这部分人的观点所涉及的信息在开首段附加对背景信息的描述。
    Example:
    The best way to solve the world’s environmental problem is to increase the price of fuel. Do you agree or disagree?
    →In the process of industrialization and urbanization, the scope of environmental problem facing the world is getting immense. From Mexico City and New York to Singapore and China new solutions to this problem are being proposed, tried and implemented. Some people believe increasing the price of fuel is the best approach to this problem.其后加入考生个人观点即可。
    另外,金吉列专家要提醒考生注意的是开首段一定要避免出现语法错误,因为如果语法错误影响文章的理解,那会给考官留下极差的第一印象,而考官也就没有信心继续往下读了,最终大作文的得分也不会很高。
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